Hardware, which is abbreviated as HW, refers to all of the physical components of a computer system, as well as any external devices that are linked to the computer system. You cannot build a computer or run software without first acquiring the necessary hardware. This information is being displayed on a screen, which is likewise a piece of hardware.
What is a hardware upgrade?
A hardware upgrade is a new piece of hardware, or a replacement for an existing piece of hardware, or extra hardware that is designed to improve the performance of current equipment. A frequent example of a hardware upgrade is a RAM upgrade, which increases the total amount of memory available on the computer, and a video card update, which involves removing the old video card and installing the new one.
The following are some of the most regularly seen pieces of computer hardware:
The motherboard is often a narrow circuit board that connects practically all of the components of a computer, with the exception of the input and output devices, to form a single unit. The motherboard contains all of the critical hardware, including the CPU, RAM, hard disc, and connectors for connecting input and output devices. A computer chassis’s main circuit board is the largest circuit board available.
It provides power to all of the gear that is installed on it and allows them to interact with one another. Its purpose is to house the computer’s CPU chip and provide a means for other components to communicate with it. Everything that operates the computer or improves its performance is either a part of the motherboard or is attached to it via a slot or port.
Motherboards can be classified into several categories based on the kind and size of the machines they support. As a result, a certain motherboard can only be used with a specific type of CPU and memory.
The following are the components of a Motherboard
CPU Slot: This slot is used to house the CPU when it is installed. A microprocessor and a motherboard are connected by means of this component. It makes it easier to utilise the CPU and avoids harm from occurring when it is inserted or removed. Furthermore, it is equipped with a lock to prevent the CPU from moving, as well as a heat sink to disperse the additional heat.
RAM Slot: This is a memory slot or socket that is supplied on the motherboard for the purpose of inserting or installing the RAM memory (Random Access Memory). A computer can have two or more memory slots, depending on the model.
Expansion Slot: Also known as the bus slot or expansion port, this slot is used to expand the capacity of a computer. It is a connection or port on the motherboard that serves as an installation point for a hardware expansion card. For example, you can purchase a video expansion card and install it into the expansion slot on the motherboard, after which you can install a new video card in the computer to complete the installation. AGP, AMR, CNR, PCI, and other expansion slots are some of the most often found in computers.
Capacitor: A capacitor is composed of two conducting plates placed together with a thin insulator in between. These components have been packaged in a plastic container.
Inductor (Coil): A conducting wire is wrapped around an iron core to form an electromagnetic coil, which we refer to as an inductor (coil). It serves as an inductor or electromagnet, storing magnetic energy in its magnetic field.
Northbridge: In computing, a northbridge is an integrated circuit that permits communications to take place between the CPU interface, graphics processor, and memory. Also included is the ability for the southbridge chip to connect with the RAM, the processor, and the graphics controller.
USB Port: This port allows you to connect hardware devices to your computer, such as a mouse and keyboard.
PCI Slot: It is abbreviated as PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect), and it is a type of slot. It enables you to connect PCI devices such as modems, network gear, sound cards, and video cards to your computer.
AGP Slot: (Accelerated Graphics Port) is an abbreviation for this. It is responsible for providing the slot for connecting graphics cards.
Heat Sink: A heat sink is a device that collects and dissipates the heat created by the computer CPU.
Power Connector: This connector is responsible for delivering power to the motherboard.
CMOS battery: This is an abbreviation for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (often referred to as CMOS). It is a piece of memory that holds BIOS configuration information such as the time, date, and hardware settings.
A monitor is the display unit of a computer on which the processed data (such as text, pictures, and other graphics) is presented. This device is made up of a screen circuity and a casing that houses the screen circuity. The monitor is also referred to as a visual display unit in some circles (VDU).
Monitors are classified into the following categories:
- ● CRT Monitor: This type of monitor is equipped with cathode ray tubes, which generate pictures in the form of video signals. The electron gun assembly, deflection plate assembly, glass envelope, fluorescent screen, and base are the primary components of this device.
- ● A flat panel display is referred to as an LCD monitor. It generates pictures on the screen by the use of liquid crystal display technology. Advanced LEDs are equipped with thin-film transistors and capacitors, as well as active-matrix technology, which allows pixels to hold their charge for longer periods of time.
- ● LED Monitor: An LED monitor is a more sophisticated version of the LCD display. In contrast to an LCD monitor, which utilises cold cathode fluorescent light to backlight the display, it contains LED panels, each of which has a large number of LEDs to show the backlighting information on the screen.
- ● Monitor with plasma display technology: It has a resolution of up to 1920 x 1080 pixels, a wide viewing angle, a high refresh rate, an amazing contrast ratio, and other features that make it a great choice for many people.
- ● It is the most significant input device for a computer, followed by the mouse. It is intended to allow you to enter text, characters, and other commands into a computer, desktop computer, tablet computer, or other device. It comes with many distinct sets of keys for entering numbers and characters, as well as for performing a variety of additional activities such as copying, pasting, deleting, and entering.
It is a tiny portable device that is used to manipulate or move the pointer (the computer screen’s cursor) in a graphical user interface (GUI) (graphical user interface). It enables you to point to and select things on a computer’s display screen by just moving your mouse over them. It is usually placed on a flat surface since we need to be able to move it smoothly in order to control the cursor. There are many different types of mice, including trackball mice, mechanical mice, optical mice, wireless mice, and so on.
The following are the primary functions of a mouse:
- ● Mouse movement is the most important feature of the mouse; it allows you to move the pointer around on your computer screen.
- ● A programme or a folder may be opened, and a programme may be executed as a result of this action. The folder must be opened by placing the mouse over it and using the “double click” button.
- ● The choose command lets you to select text, a file, or any other item from the list.
- ● Hovering: The act of moving the mouse pointer over a clickable item is referred to as hovering. During the time that the mouse cursor is over an item, it displays information about the object without the user having to touch any buttons on the mouse.
- ● Scrolling allows you to move up and down a long webpage or document by simply moving your mouse up and down.
- ● The following are the parts of a mouse:
- ● There are two buttons: A mouse is equipped with two buttons, one for the right click and one for the left click.
- ● When used in some programmes, such as AutoCAD, the scroll wheel is a wheel that is situated between the right and left buttons and is used to scroll up and down as well as zoom in and out.
- ● A wireless mouse requires the usage of a battery to function properly.
- ● Detection Assembly for Mouse Motion: A mouse can be equipped with a trackball or an optical sensor that sends signals to the computer informing it of the mouse’s movement and position.