Generally speaking, a computer is an electrical device that receives raw data as input and processes it according to a set of instructions (a programme) in order to create the desired result as the output. It generates output immediately after executing mathematical and logical operations, and it has the capability of saving the output for later use. It is capable of processing both numerical and non-numerical calculations. The word “computer” comes from the Latin word “computare,” which literally translates as “to calculate.”
Through the use of integrated hardware and software components, computers are intended for the execution of programmes and the provision of a variety of solutions. It is operated with the assistance of programmes and renders decimal numbers as a string of binary digits in its output. It also contains a memory, which is used to store data, programmes, and the results of computation. Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer, such as the wires, transistors, circuits, and hard drive that make up the computer’s machinery. Software, on the other hand, refers to the programmes and data that are included within it.
Historically, the Analytical Engine, which was created by Charles Babbage in 1837, is considered to be the world’s first computer. As read-only memory, it made use of punch cards. Charles Babbage is also referred to as the “Father of the Computer” because of his contributions to the development of the computer.
The following are the fundamental components of a computer without which it cannot function:
● Processors are responsible for carrying out instructions from both software and hardware.
● Data transport between the CPU and storage is accomplished through the use of memory, which is the primary memory.
● The motherboard of a computer is the component that links all of the other elements and components of the computer.
● Storage Device: A device that retains data indefinitely, such as a hard disc.
● Input Device: A device that allows you to communicate with the computer or enter data, such as a keyboard, is considered an input device.
● It allows you to observe the output on a device such as a monitor, for example.
● In order to categorise computers, they are separated into distinct categories depending on various characteristics. A computer may be classified into five classes based on its physical size:
Microcomputers, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are all types of computers.
Extremely powerful computer workstations
- Micro Computer: A microcomputer is a single-user computer that is slower and has less storage space than the other computer kinds. As a central processing unit, it makes use of a microprocessor. The first microcomputer was constructed using microprocessor chips with an 8-bit resolution. Microcomputers are often found in a variety of forms, including laptops, desktop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), tablets, and smartphones. Microcomputers are often intended and created for general-purpose tasks like as surfing, looking for information, using the internet, using Microsoft Office, using social media, and so on.
- Mini Computer: Minicomputers are sometimes referred to as “Midrange Computers” in some circles. They are not intended for a single person. They are multi-user computers that are capable of supporting several users at the same time. As a result, small enterprises and firms are more likely to employ them. Distinct computer systems are used by specific divisions within a firm…………………….. For example, the admissions department of a university can utilise a Mini-computer to keep track of the admissions process as it happens.
3.multi-user computer capable of supporting thousands of people at the same time (Mainframe Computer). Because they have the ability to store and analyse enormous volumes of data, they are widely employed by major corporations and government agencies to operate their commercial operations. Mainframe computers, for example, are used by financial institutions, educational institutions, and insurance firms to store information about their clients, pupils, and policyholders, respectively.
- Supercomputer: Supercomputers are the fastest and most expensive computers available, and they are the most powerful of all computer kinds. It is possible for them to process millions of instructions per second since they have enormous storage capacity and computation speeds. They are task-specific and hence utilised for specialised applications such as large-scale numerical problems in scientific and technical disciplines, including applications in electronics, petroleum engineering, weather prediction, medicine, and space exploration, among other fields. NASA, for example, use supercomputers for the launch of space satellites, as well as the monitoring and management of such spacecraft throughout space exploration.
- Workstations: This is a computer designed for a single user. A microcomputer is similar in appearance to a personal computer, but contains a more powerful CPU and a higher-quality display than a personal computer. It falls between between a personal computer and a minicomputer in terms of storage space and processing performance. Desktop publishing, software development, and engineering designs are some of the specialised applications that work stations are employed for.
The following are some advantages of using a computer:
● An increase in the amount of work you do: A computer increases your amount of work. Example: If you have a rudimentary grasp of word processing, you can produce, edit, store, and print documents with relative ease and speed after learning the basics.
● Access to the internet is provided by this device, which enables you to send emails and view material on the internet, as well as to obtain information and utilise social media platforms, among other things. By connecting to the internet, you may also communicate with long-distance friends and family members who live in other locations.
● Storage: A computer has the capability of storing a vast quantity of information, such as your projects, ebooks, papers, videos, images, songs, and other media, among other things.
● Data and information that has been organised: It not only lets you to save data, but it also helps you to arrange your data. For example, you may create separate folders to store different types of data and information, making it easier and faster to find what you’re looking for later on.
● Enhanced abilities: If you are not excellent at spelling and punctuation, it will assist you in writing decent English. The same goes for those who struggle with math or who have poor recall skills. A computer can conduct computations and save the answers for them.
● Assisting the physically challenged: It may be used to assist the physically challenged, for example, Stephen Hawking, who was unable to talk, utilised a computer to communicate with others. It may also be used to assist blind individuals by installing special software that allows them to read what is displayed on the screen.
● Use of the computer to keep you entertained: You may use the computer to listen to music, view movies, play games and other activities.
● The computer has become an integral component of our everyday lives. There are several activities that we perform throughout the day that are dependent on a computer.
The following are a few instances of what is commonly seen:
● In order for an ATM to follow your instructions and dispense cash in the appropriate manner, you must use a computer while taking money from one.
● Digital currency: A computer maintains track of your transactions and the amount in your account, and the money transferred into your bank account is recorded as a digital record, also known as digital currency.
● Trading: Computers are used in the stock market for day-to-day trading. There are a variety of sophisticated algorithms based on computers that manage trading without the involvement of human brokers or traders.
● Smartphone: The smartphone, which we use throughout the day for calling, messaging, and surfing, is in fact a computer in and of its own right.
● VoIP (voice over IP communication): All voice over IP communication (VoIP) is managed and completed by computers.