The language we use to communicate with one another is made up of words and characters that we can read and write. We are familiar with numbers, characters, and words. This form of data, on the other hand, is not ideal for computers. Computers are solely capable of comprehending numbers.

Consequently, when we enter information, the information is turned into an electrical pulse. Using ASCII, each pulse is recognised as a code, and the code is then transformed into a numeric representation. It assigns a numeric value (number) to each number, letter, and symbol, which is understandable by computers. As a result, in order to grasp the computer language, one needs to be knowledgeable with the number systems.

**The Number Systems that are utilised in computers are as follows:**

● Binary number system

● Octal number system

● Decimal number system

● Hexadecimal number system

### Binary number system

The binary number system is a type of number system in which there are two digits and one zero.Because it only contains two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1,’ it has a base of two. Because of this, there are only two sorts of electrical pulses in this number system: the lack of an electronic pulse, which represents the number zero, and the presence of an electronic pulse, which represents the number one.

Each digit is referred to as a bit. In computing, a nibble is defined as a group of four bits (1101), and a byte is defined as a group of eight bits (11001011). Each digit in a binary number corresponds to a certain power of the base (2) of the number system, and the location of each digit in a binary number symbolises this power.

### Octal number system

It has eight digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and so has an eight-digit base. In an octal number, each digit indicates a distinct power of the number’s base (8). Because there are only eight digits in the binary number system, three bits (23=8) may be used to transform any octal number into a binary number. This number method is also used to condense lengthy binary integers into manageable chunks. The three binary digits can be represented by a single octal digit in the hexadecimal system.

### Decimal number system

This number system contains ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) and hence has a base of ten (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) as well. It is important to note that under this number system, the greatest value of a digit is 9 and the least value of a digit is 0. The location of each digit in a decimal number corresponds to a certain power of the number system’s base (10) represented by that digit. Our everyday lives are heavily influenced by this numerical system. It has the ability to represent any number value.

### Hexadecimal number system

This number system includes 16 digits that run from 0 to 9 and from A to F. It is based on the Roman numeral system. As a result, its starting point is 16. The letters of the alphabet from A to F represent 10 to 15 decimal numbers. In the number system’s power of base (16), the location of each digit in a hexadecimal number denotes a distinct power of base (16).

Because there are only sixteen digits in the binary number system, four bits (24=16) may be used to transform any hexadecimal number into a binary number. It is sometimes referred to as the alphanumeric number system due to the fact that it makes use of both numeric digits and alphabets.

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